Meningococcal septicaemia, also called meningococcaemia, refers to a sudden onset of a bloodstream infection.

Complications include limb or hearing loss, cognitive dysfunction, visual impairment, educational difficulties, developmental delays, motor nerve deficits, seizure disorders, and possibly death.

Tiny, but deadly

The bacteria Neisseria meningitidis is the culprit behind meningococcal septicaemia. It can also cause meningitis and pneumonia.

It is endemic to the “meningitis belt” of sub-Saharan Africa, and can easily live in the upper respiratory tract of healthy humans without causing illness.

Anyone visiting these areas may become a carrier who unwittingly spreads the disease.

The UK National Institute of Health and Care Excellence states that N. meningitidis causes bacterial meningitis in one out of seven cases, or septicaemia in one of four cases, or as a combination in three out of five cases (Source: Meningitis [bacterial] and meningococcal septicaemia in under 16s: recognition, diagnosis and management).

In Malaysia, although bacterial sepsis accounts for almost 8% of newborn deaths (babies under 28 days) [Statistics on Causes of Death, Malaysia, 2017], it should not be taken lightly. Meningococcal septicaemia (and meningitis) can cause death in hours.

Survivors have also been known to suffer from long-term after-effects such as memory loss or difficulty retaining information, lack of concentration, clumsiness or problems with physical co-ordination, arthritis or joint stiffness, physical scarring of skin, possible loss of limbs (fingers, toes, arms or legs), and possible damage to lungs or kidneys.

Who are at risk?

Babies and toddlers up to five years old are at risk due to their less mature immune system; others include teenagers/young adults who live in dormitories and share food/drinks with others, and the elderly.

Signs and symptoms include the following:

• Fever

• Fatigue

• Vomiting

• Cold hands and feet

• Chills

• Severe aches or pain in the muscles, joints, chest or abdomen (belly)

• Rapid breathing

• Diarrhoea

• In the later stages, a dark purple rash

infection of the blood, meningococcal septicaemia, Neisseria meningitidis, meningococcaemia, vaccination, Star2.com

Prevention is the best cure, and meningococcaemia can be prevented by vaccination. — AP

The glass test

You can use the “glass test” to check whether the rash is an indication of meningococcaemia or not.

A regular rash will blanch (or fade) under pressure from a glass held against it. The purpuric rash of meningococcaemia will not blanch.

Be alert and don’t be afraid to seek immediate medical attention if you suspect your child has meningococcaemia.

The early signs/symptoms can be non-specific, making it difficult to distinguish from other less dangerous infections.

However, if no attention is given to it, matters can quickly escalate (in as little as 24-48 hours), with more specific (and severe) signs and symptoms appearing over time.

Don’t be a statistic

Early medical intervention can give your child a higher chance of survival.

However, there is a very real risk of permanent physical consequences such as amputation of fingers, toes, arms or legs (due to a lack of blood circulation to these body parts), severe scarring due to skin grafts, and other mental effects such as loss of memory.

Prevention is the best cure, and meningococcaemia can be prevented by immunisation.

Other steps you can take to minimise your child’s risk is by practising (and teaching him) good hygiene to reduce the spread of bacteria. Avoid sharing food or drink, and toothbrushes as well.

Speak with your paediatrician or doctor at once to learn your options for protecting yourself and your family from this deadly threat.

Although it is not a common disease, its severity means that you should not be lax and assume that it will not happen to you.

Take action by getting vaccinated.

Datuk Dr Zulkifli Ismail is the Asia Pacific Paediatric Association secretary-general and Positive Parenting Management Committee chairman. This article is courtesy of the Malaysian Paediatric Association’s Positive Parenting programme in collaboration with expert partners. For further information, please email starhealth@thestar.com.my or visit www.mypositiveparenting.org. The information provided is for educational and communication purposes only and it should not be construed as personal medical advice. Information published in this article is not intended to replace, supplant or augment a consultation with a health professional regarding the reader’s own medical care. The Star does not give any warranty on accuracy, completeness, functionality, usefulness or other assurances as to the content appearing in this column. The Star disclaims all responsibility for any losses, damage to property or personal injury suffered directly or indirectly from reliance on such information.